Famous Mountain Passes
The Khyber Pass
The Kurram Pass
The Tochi Pass
The Gomal Pass
The Bolan Pass
The Lowari Pass
The Khunjrab Pass
Beas (tributary of Sutlej)
Lakes Manchar Sindh ,,,
Keenjar ,Sindh….. Hanna ,Balochistan…….
Saif-ul-Maluk NWFP ……
Satpara Northern Areas ……Kachura Northern
Major Dams =
Mangla Dam Punjab on the river jehlum
Tarbela Dam NWFP on the river Indus
Warsak Dam NWFP on the river kabul
• Iran was first to recognize Pakistan.
• Pakistan opened its first embassy in Iran.
• Egypt was first to open its embassy in Pakistan. (chk)
• First governor of State Bank Zahid Hussain.
• First Lady governor Rana Liaquat Ali (Sindh) 1973-1976.
• First lady federal minister Vikarun Nisa Noor (Tourism).
• First state to join Pakistan was Bahawul Pur, 1954.
• Pak: cricket team first visited England.(chk: India)
• First captain of cricket team Abdul Hafeez Kardar.
• First century Nazar Mohammd against India in 1954 in Lacknow.
• First Woman University is located in Rawalpindi.
• First governor of Punjab=Francis Moody.
• First CM of Punjab=Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot.
• First Governor of Sindh=Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah.
• First CM of Sindh=Ayub Khoro.
• First Governor of Baluchistan=Lt: General Riaz Hussain.
• First CM of Baluchistan=Attaullah Mengal.
• First Chief Justice of Pak: Sir Abdur Rasheed.
• First PM of Azad Kashmir=Abdul Hamid Khan.
• First President of AJK=Sardar Ibrahim Khan.
• First Commander-in-Chief of Pak: Army was Frank Miservi.
• First chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee was General Mohd: Sahrif.
• First chief of Staff of armed forces was General Tikka Khan.
• First governor State Bank was Zahid Hussain.
• First daily newspaper is Amroz 1947.
• First lady pilot was Shukriya Khanum.
• First museum of Pak established in Karachi in 1950.
• First Bank was United Bank (7th August, 1947)
• First Agriculture Reforms in Pak: Jan: 24, 1959.
• First Chief Election Commissioner of Pak: Mr. Khan F.M.Khan (25th March, 1956)
• Election Commision was created on 23rd March, 1956 under Article 137 of 1956 consititution.
• First Muslim Commander in Chief of Pak: Ayub Khan.
• First Radio Station established was of Karachi.
• First T.V station was setup at Lahore on Nov: 26, 1964.
• First lady Lady Major General in Pak: Dr. Shahida Malik.
• First Space satellite was launched by Pak: in 1990.
• First private TV Channel STN launched in 1990.
• First Chairman Senate was Habibullah Khan.
• First woman judge of High Court: Majida Rizvi.
• First constructed barrage of Pak: Sukkur Barrage.
• First Secretary General of Pak: Ch: Mohd: Ali.
• Agro museum is at Lailpur.
• First bio-gas plant was installed in 1974.
• First woman bank established on Dec: 1, 1989.
• Badshahi mosque built in 1670 A.D.
• Designataion of GG changed into President on 23rd March, 1956.
• Largest Hockey stadium is National Hockey Stadium Lahore.
• First minority minister of Pak: Joginder Nath Mandal held the portfolio of law.
• First Atomic Reactor established in Islamabad in 1956. (chk).
• Largest railway tunnel is Khojak.
• Smallest dam of Pak: Warsak dam.
• Largest fort of Pak: “Rani Kot”.
• City Bank is the largest bank in the country.(chk: Habib Bank)
• Nishan-e-Pak: is the highest civil award of Pak:
• Second highest civil award is Hilal-e-Pak:
• Ayub National Park (Rawalpinidi) is the largest Park in Pakistan.
• Lahore Museum is the biggest in Pak: (chk)
• Largest Railway station is Lahore.
• Highest Pass is Muztag Pass which connects Gilgit to Xinkiyang.
• Largest canal is Lloyd Barrage Canal or Sukkur Barrage or Lance Down Pull built in 1936.
• Largest Cement Plant is Lucky Cement Plant near Luki Marwat.
• Largest road is Shahrah-e-Pak:
• Shortest river is Ravi.
• Smallest division is Karachi.
• Largest division is Kalat.
• Largest division of Sindh is Therparkar.
• Habib Bank Plaza Karachi has 23 stories (345 ft)
• Minar-e-Pak: is 196 ft, 8 inches high.
• Pakistan has its longest boundary with Afghanistan.
• Pakistan is 34th largest country in the world, 6th population wise.
• Smallest civil award is Tamg-e-Khidmat.
• First census of Indo-Pak: 1881.
• Highest dam is Mangla dam.
• Pak: expedition to Antarctica reached on 5 Jan, 1991 established Jinnah Research Station
• Longest tenure as Governor General was Ghulam Mohammad.
• Longest tenure as President was Ayub Khan.
• Longest period of rule was of Zia.
• Longest tenure as PM was of Liaquat Ali
• Shortest tenure as PM of Ayub Khan (3 days) then Shujaat Hussain (47 days).
• Shortest tenure as President is of Bhutto.
• Shortest tenure as Governor General is of Quaid.
• Longest tenure as Governor General is of Ghulam Mohd:
• Largest library is Quaid-e-Azam library.
• Largest University is in Punjab.
• Oldest university is in Punjab.
• The only non-military shaheed to receive Nishan-e-Haider was Subaidar Lalik Jan he belonged to NLI.
• Highest peak of Sulaiman mountains is Takht-e-Sulaiman.
• Highest peak is K2 (Goodwin Austin 5,611 meters)
• 2nd largest glacier of Pak: is Batura.
• Largest Island of Pak: is Manora.
• Smallest city is Jehlum.
• Longest tunnel rail= Khojak (2.43 miles) (Baluchistan), road=Lowari Tunnel (5 miles), water=Warsak Dam Tunnel (3.5 miles).
• Rainiest city is RawalPindi.
• Rainiest place is Muree.
• First Medical College was Nishtar Medical College.
• Smallest Dam is Warsak dam.
• Largest mountain range is Karakoram.
• First to receive Nishan-e-Hyder was Mohd: Sarwar Shaheed.
• First private airline of Pakistan is Hajvari.
• Pak’s Second largest city is Lahore.
• Abdur Rasheed was the first chief Justice was the first chief justice of Pakistan.
• Zafarullah khan was the first foreign minister of Pakistan.
• Keenjhar is the largest man made lake in Pakistan.
• Manchar Lake is the biggest lake of Pakistan.
• Trich Mir is the highest peak of Hindu Kush.
• Largest coal mine is in Quetta.
• In Pakistan, first woman bank was established in the year 1989.
• Pakistan’s first geo-scientific laboratory is functioning in Islamabad.
• The highest point of the Khyber Pass is Landhi Kotal.
• The first atomic power station of Pakistan was installed in Karachi.
• The First President of America who made an official visit to Pakistan was Dwight D. Eishenhower
• Largest airline is PIA.
• Largest airport is Quaid-e-Azam Internationl Airport, Karachi.
• Largest canal is Lloyd Barrage Canal.
• Largest dam is Terbela.
• Largest desert is Thar.
• Largest district is Khuzdar (Baluchistan).
• Largest industial unit is Pak: Steel Mill.
• Largest industry is Textile.
• Largest island is Manora (Karachi)
• Largest Jungle is Changa Manga (Kasur).
• Largest lake (artificial) is Keenjhar.
• Largest lake (natural) is Manchar.
• Largest library is Pujab Public Library, Lahore.
• Largest mine is Salt Mines of Khewra.
• Largest motorway is Lahore-Islamabad.
• Largest museum is National Meseum, Karachi.
• Largest circulated urdu newspaper is Jang, Enghish is The News.
• Largest nuclear reactor is KANUPP, Karachi.
• Largest oil field is Dhurnal Oil Field.
• Largest park is Ayub National Park, Rawalpindi.
• Largest Radio Station is Islamabad.
• Largest university is Punjab University, Lahore.
• Longest coast is of Baluchistan (771 km)
• Largest railway platform is of Rohri.
• Longest railway track: Karachi to Landi Kotal.
• Longest road: Karachi to Peshawar.
• First TV station in Pakistan started at Lahore.
• Pakistan’s first radio station was set up at Karachi.
The Largest in Pakistan
Air Lines : PIA
Air Port : Quaid-e-azam International Airport , Khi
Bank : State bank Of pakistan.The largest commercial bank is Habib bank Ltd with Rs. 194.6 billion desposit
Barrage : Sukkur Barrage
City : Karachi, Estimated population 9.9 millions
Canal : Lloyd Barrage Canal
Dam : Tarbela Dam (vol 148 million cubic metres)
Desert : Thar (sindh)
Division : Kalat division (baluchistan),Area 1,38,633 sq km
District : Khuzdar (baluchistan)
Fort : Rani Kot (sindh)
Gas Field : Sui Gas Field, Baluchistan
Hospital: Nishtar Hospital , Multan
Hydro-Electric Power Station : Tarbela (3478 MW)
Industrial Unit : Pakistan Steel Mills , Karachi
Industry : Textile Industry
Island : Manora (karachi)
Jungle : Chhanga Manga (kasur)
Lake (Artificial) : Keenjhar Lake (sindh)
Lake (natural): Manchhar Lake, Dadu (sindh)
Library : The punjab public Library,Lahore (punjab)
Mine : Salt Mines , Khewra (punjab)
Mosque : Shah Faisal Mosque , Isl
Motorway : Lahore-Islamabad,motorway
Museum : National Museum, karachi
Newspaper : Jang (urdu) ; The news (eng)
Nuclear Reactor : Karachi Nuclear Power plant (KANUPP)
Oil Field : Dhurnal Oil Field
Park : Ayub National Park , Rawalpindi
Radio station : Islamabad
Railway station : Lahore
River : Indus river
University : Punjab University , lahore
The Longest in Pakistan
coast : Balochistan (771 kms long)
Frontier : Pak-Afghan border (2252 kms)
Railway Platform : Rohri (sindh),Length 1894 feet
Railway track : Karachi to Landi kotal
Road : Karachi to peshawar
Tunnel (railway) : Khojak baluchistan (2.43 miles)
Tunnel (road) : Lowari (5 miles)
Tunnel (water) : Warsak Dam Tunnel (3.5 miles)
The Tallest in pakistan
Tower : Minar-e-pakistan (height 196 feet 8 inches)
Minart : Four Minarets of Shah faisal Mosque with height of 286 feet each
Mountain pass : Muztagh Pass (Height 19030 feet)
Mountain peak : K-2 (karakoram) height 28269 feet
Mahmud Ghaznavi (977 – 1030)
Mahmud ghaznavi was the muslim ruler of ghazni who gained fame by raiding india on seventeem times from 1000 to 1027 A.D. On each occasion he defeated hindu kings and returned to Ghazni with enormous wealth.He is the person who bring Islam in sub-continent by capturing the Sommnath.
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi (RA)
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi was a muslim saint and scholar who flourished during the reigns of Akbar and Jahangir. He differed with etheistic view of Sheikh Mubarak and his sons Faizi and Abul Fazl.Jahangir imprisoned him for his religious activities but released him shortly afterwards. Sheikh ahmed Sirhindi propounded the doctrine of Wahdatul Shahud which successfully countered the Bhakti philosophy of Wahdatul Wujud.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last lodhi sultan of Delhi. He was defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.
After defeating the Ibrahim lodhi ,The mughal empire had been came in existence by Zahir-ul-din Babur
1. Zahir-ul-din Babur
6. Orangzeb alamgir
7. Bhadur Shah Zafar
Downfall of muslim rule (CAUSES)
1.Ignorance of religious beliefs
2. Lack of solidarity
3. Centralization of mughul Administration
4. No law of succession
5. Weakness of Character
7. Military weakness
8. No naval Force
Establishment of British rule
The british east India company was struggling for gaining ground to establish itself permanently on the subcontinent since 1600 A.D. The other European colonialist powers had lost their will to keep themselves in row with the English because of their superiority on seas. Lord Clive established English influence on sound footing and returned to england in 1787
When no rival European power was left on the scene , the English took advantage of the unsettled conditions of India and consolidated themselves politically.They clevely played one local ruler against the other and conquered India with the might of india.They demonstrated a great diplomati skill and employed improved arms with a better knowledge of warfare. The indian rulers at last fell a victim to their own entanglement. They were either forced to accept the authority of East India Company or to be completely wiped off.This process of expansion of the british occupation od India continued in one form orthe other.Kingdom after kingdom fell and then English finally pushed themselves ahead to succeed the mughuls.
Jehad Movement was started by Syed Ahmed Barelvi and his companions in the first half of the 19th century.This movement aimed at taking back control of India from the british and the Sikhs. Jehad movement met some sucess in its early stage when the Mujahideen defeated Sikh army and captured Peshawar.
Two Nation Theory
It is the theory that the hindus and muslims are two different nations because each of them has a separate religion, language, architecture, culture and way of life. This theory formed the basis of the pakistan movement which finally led to the creation of pakistan in 1947. Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam were the greatest exponents of Two-NationTheory.
In the view of Allama Iqbal:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races , speaking different languages and professing different religions….Even the Hindus do not form a homogeneous group. The principle of European democracy can not b applied to india without recognizing the fact of communal groups The muslims demand for the creation of a muslim india within India is, therefore, perfectly justified”
According to Quaid-e-Azam
“We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation.We are a nation of a hundred million and what is more we are a nation with our own distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names nad nomenclature, sense of values and proportion”
Hindi-Urdu Controversy (1867)
Hindi- Urdu Controversy became the focus of nation attention in 1867 when some hindus of benarus tried to replace urdu with hindi as the court language. Sir syed ahmed was disappointed at the anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus.
War of Independence (1857)
The muslim of the Sub-continent fought a war of Independence in 1857 to overthrow the British Raj.However, this war could not succeed because it lacked competent leadership, coordination troops , military and financial resources and modern weapons. After the war, the British held the muslim responsible for this catastrophe and unleashed a wave of oppression and repression on them
M.A.O college Aligarh
In 1875, Muhammad Anglo-Oriental High school was founded by Sir syed ahmed khan. Two years later, in 1877 it was given the status of a college. It functioned from 1877 to 1919 and educated thousands of muslim students who formed the vanguard of pakistan movement.This college was given the status of a muslim university in 1920,after the death of Sir syed ahmed khan.
Deoband movement was a socio-religious movement of Indian in the later half of the 19th century. It was started by Maulana Mohd Qasim Nanautvi in 1866. It aimed at educating the muslims in purely religious subjects by keeping english out of its syllabus. It laid stress on Arabic and Persion languages.
In 1894, Nadva-tu-Ulema, lucknow was founded by Maulana Abdul Ghafoor and Maulana Shibli Nomani. Nadva aimed at reforming Muslim society by imparting both ecclesiastical and secular knowledge to muslims
Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam, Lahore
Anjuman himayat-e-Islam ,lahore was established in 1884. Khalifa hameeduddin and Maulvi Ghulam Ullah were elected as its first president and secretary respectively.Later on, the Anjuman opened many educational and welfare institutionsion Lahore. Out of these Islamia college Railway road became very famous. The students of Islamia college arranged the annual meeting of muslim league at Lahore on 23rd march 1940 which passed lahore resolution.
First Constituent Assembly
First constituent assembly held its first meeting on 10th august,1947.Originally it comprised of 69 members of Central legislature belonging to punjab,sindh,NWFP and Baluchistan.Later on,the numer of members was raised to 79.This first constituent assemble was dissolved by ghulam mohammad in oct,1954.
The Contituent Assembly approved the objective resolution on 12th mar,1949.It embodied the basic principles for the future contituent of pakistan.The objective resolution stated that the sovereignty belonged to Allah and declared that the Muslims of pakistan would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam and The minorities would b free to practise their religions.
Ulema`s 22 Points
The Govt of pakistan convened a convention of Ulema from 21-24th jan 1951 at karachi.The convention was attended by 31 muslim religious scholars belonging to all sects od Islam.The Ulema agreed on 22 points
Establishment of pakistan (Initial problems and events)
1. Demarcation of boundaries …..Radcliffe`s Award
2. Congress Reaction
3. Uprooting of muslim in punjab
4. Refugees problem and their resettlement
5. Division of Armed forces and Military Assets
6. Division of financial Assets
7. Canal Water Dispute
8. Accession of Princely states (junagarh,kashmir and hyderabad)
9. economic problems and political problems
10. Constitutional problem
11. Death of Quaid-e-Azam
Indus water Treaty
Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960to resolve the outstanding canal water dispute between the two countries
Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch is a wide stretch of marshy land situated towards the south-east of pakistan. In 1965 this area became a scene of border clash betweem india and pak.
Six Points of Mujib-ur-rehman
In Feb. 1966, Sheikh Mujib the leader of Awami league announced his 6 points, which demanded maximum autonomy for East pakistan.Later on, these points became the basis for the separation movement by Bengalis.
Liaquat – Nehru Pact
Liaquat Ali khan and Nehru signed a pact on 8th april 1950 in delhi.According to this agreement, both the countries agreed to protect the rights of their minorities and undertook to stop propaganda against each other.
The 1971 Indo-pak was abd the insurgency of bengalis resulted in the separation of east pakistan. The way brought in its wake many issue, which included the release of PoWs, trial of selected PoWs, return of Baharis to pakistan and recognition of bangladesh . In july 1972, Z.A.Bhutto and Indira Gandhi signed an Accord in simla which is historically known as simla accord
Languages of pakistan
Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. About thirty-one distinct languages are spoken in pakistan, not counting a number of dialects, but no single language is commonly spoken or understood in all parts of the country.Many of the languages are spoken by a relatively small proportion of the population and some are not even commonly written, but sentiment and association among the speakers is almost invariably opposed to absorption into one of the larger units. With minor exception all the languages are also spoken outside the country
Ratio of languages of pakistan
1. Urdu ( 7.6 )
2. Punjabi ( 44.1 )
3. Pushto ( 15.4 )
4. Sindhi ( 14.1 )
5. Balochi ( 3.6 )
6. Saraiki ( 10.5 )
7. Others ( 4.7 )
POPULATION OF PAKISTAN BY RELIGION
According to census of 1981 , religion-wise population of pakistan was as under
1. Muslim = 81,450,057
2. Christians = 1,310,426
3. Hindus = 1,276,116
4. Ahmadis = 104,244
5. Bhuddist = 2639
6. Parsis = 7007
7. Others = 103,155
Economics of Pakistan (Five Year Plans)
So far the government of pakistan has launched the following nine five year plans. ( 1975 to 1978 ) is regarded as no plan period
1. First five year plan (1955-60)
2. Second five year plan (1960-65)
3. Third five year plan (1965-70)
4. Fourth five year plan (1970-75)
5. Fifth five year plan (1978-83)
6. Sixth five year plan (1983-88)
7. Seventh five year plan (1988-93)
8. Eighth five year plan (1993-98)
9. Ninth five year plan (1998-2003)
Important Rivers Of Pakistan
PUNJAB : Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Sutlej
SINDH : Hub , Mir Nadi , Arl Nadi
NWFP : Indus , Kabul , Swat , Bara , Chitral , Zhob , Panjkora , Gomal , Kurram
BALUCHISTAN : Hangol , Nari , Bolan , Dasht , Mula , Rakhshan , Pashin Lora